Food For Thought: How The Most Popular Diets Work

Food For Thought: How The Most Popular Diets Work
Food For Thought: How The Most Popular Diets Work

Video: Food For Thought: How The Most Popular Diets Work

Video: Food for Thought: Diet, Nutrition, and Policy 2022, November
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“Didn't you like the dishes at all? Let's cook something else! " The waitress of a trendy Moscow restaurant looks worried. The reason was serious: a regular guest ordered a meat hodgepodge, roast duck and dumplings, but ate a fourth of the dinner at most. This guest is Vadim, who wished to remain anonymous. Under 2m tall, with the physique of a bodybuilder, he looks like a person for whom this portion is a light snack. While the confused waitress takes away the plates with leftover food, Vadim explains that the other day he googled a diet that designer Artemy Lebedev came up with a couple of years ago. From now on, Vadim is losing weight on dumplings.

Yes, the diet does not prohibit dumplings. Like four cheese pizza, eclairs and any other high-calorie food. The main condition is to eat only a quarter of the usual portion. Nutritionists do not approve of such food, of course. Losing weight will work out, but overall the health benefits are dubious. However, Artemy Lebedev likes everything: in five months, the designer threw off 20 kg and feels great. What can not be said about Vadim: he almost fainted two times already - but the temptation to test the effectiveness of the new diet is great.

While some diets allow almost everything, in others any dish more high-calorie than cabbage leaf is prohibited. Scientists regularly publish new studies on killer foods: at various times, they were declared to be sugar, bread and cow's milk. The list is updated almost every week. A simple example. In the 1970s, American nutritionists convinced patients that fat was a terrible thing. From them they get fat, get sick, fall into depression. But Coca-Cola, where there are ten teaspoons of sugar per liter, did not bother them. Today, for the sake of a slim figure and beautiful skin, people go on a keto diet, the menu of which consists of 60% healthy fats (from avocado to red fish). Sugar, on the other hand, is considered evil. He is fought with numerous documentaries and online marathons. For instance,15 thousand people took part in the action "I Can Without Sugar" under the auspices of healthy blogger Ursula Kim and guest star Vera Brezhneva.

It's funny, we got carried away with the sugar-free menu, but we stopped giving up bread. A couple of years ago, losing weight first of all excluded all flour from the diet, but now they have recognized that bread is even healthy. True, not industrial, but "craft": with live leaven and high-quality flour. And if in Europe handicraft baking is not a novelty (the famous bakery that specializes in it - the Parisian Poilâne - has existed since 1932), then for Russia this is a relatively recent discovery. Among those who talk about healthy bread is designer Vika Gazinskaya: she shares recipes on Instagram food_as_a_delicious_medicine. And also Elena Perminova, developing her own healthy lifestyle bakery "Len and Grechka" lenandgrechka.

Obviously, the rules of the game are constantly changing. And while vegans become meat-eaters and meat-eaters vegans, others find that no diet is a benchmark. How to be? At least understand the specifics of the most popular power systems.

Photo: Sveta Mullari
Photo: Sveta Mullari

© Sveta Mullari

Intermittent fasting (fasting)

The fasting boom happened in 2016 thanks to Japanese biologist Yoshinori Osumi. He proved that if cells are deprived of food, they begin to get rid of damaged proteins and thus renew themselves. Intermittent fasting schemes are different: some do not eat for 14-16 hours, some for 36 or more. “During fasting, the body utilizes the waste accumulated in the cells. As a result, growth hormones are activated and the process of lipolysis is triggered, - comments Maxim Novokovsky, a nutritionist at the LITO Medical aesthetic cosmetology clinic. - As a result, body weight decreases. The simplest options for such a diet: do not have dinner after 18:00 and breakfast at 8:00 or dinner at 22:00, but skip breakfast."

Valentina Zelyaeva, model, author of the wellness blog valentinazelyaeva from New York, shared her personal experience: “I learned about fasting two years ago. But I had no idea how to pass it correctly. Therefore, I decided to leave according to a special program in Bali and starve under the supervision of doctors. I haven't eaten or drunk anything for 36 hours. The process itself was easy for me - I still had strength for yoga. But after that I felt severe weakness and dizziness. True, in half an hour everything passed. And the result was worth it! The skin tightened and glowed. No rashes and irritations remained. But there is a nuance. Some people develop inflammation on their face after fasting. This can mean that the body is heavily "slagged" and removes toxins through the skin. In this case, it is better to consult a doctor."

Intermittent fasting prolongs life and helps fight depression, according to Korea University in Seoul. And another 48 hours without food can speed up metabolism by 3.6-14%. Researchers from the Lerner Research Institute in Cleveland also studied the topic. They found that if you arrange two to five fasting days a month, the level of insulin and the hormone IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) in the blood will decrease, that is, fasting is an excellent prevention of diabetes and heart disease. And also a way to improve the quality of sleep and feel cheerful.

Important: “A beginner needs to prepare for fasting (especially a 36-hour one),” warns Valentina Zelyaeva, “Two weeks before the start, give up meat and dairy products. Switch to a raw food diet in five days. Eat fruit and drink water the day before. But the main difficulty of fasting is not to get lost. According to statistics from the medical scientific journal JAMA, 38% of people cannot stand the hunger strike and still go to the refrigerator (the participants in the experiment ate only a quarter of their usual diet for two days).

Photo: Sveta Mullari
Photo: Sveta Mullari

© Sveta Mullari

Sugar free

From 1970 to 2000, Americans began to eat more sugar: the portion per person increased from 290 grams to 334 grams per day. At the same time, the percentage of obese patients across the country has grown from 15% to 25%. And in recent studies, scientists blame sugar not only for excess weight and diabetes, but also for premature aging. In particular, this is confirmed by a study by the University of California San Francisco (UCSF). It says that telomeres - the endings of chromosomes - shorten faster for sugary drinkers, and the faster telomeres shorten, the faster a person ages. But the main instrument of propaganda was the documentary Sugar (2014). As an experiment, Damon Gamo ate 40 tablespoons of granulated sugar every day, and also took into account the "hidden" sugar found in yoghurts and packaged juices. Two months later, Gamo gained 6 kg,gained 7 cm at the waist and discovered problems with the liver, skin and heart.

For those who are not motivated enough by cinema, there are online marathons. The largest in Russia "I Can Without Sugar" was organized by healthy blogger Ursula Kim. “Sugar is absolutely evil,” says Ursula. - It does not bring any benefit to the body. It is worth excluding it, as the weight decreases. Puffiness, cellulite, fat deposits go away. You forget what a breakdown and mood swings are. Yes, sugar quickly gives energy, but it just as quickly dries up, and we feel overwhelmed. But healthy food - fats and complex carbohydrates - guarantees strength for the whole day. Another plus: sugar-free sleep becomes stronger. And, of course, the condition of the skin improves. After all, sugar causes inflammation and feeds pathogenic microflora. More importantly, don't look for an alternative to sugar. It is better to completely wean the receptors from this taste. And after a while you will be surprisedhow sweet the berries, carrots and pumpkin will seem to you. And the main thing is to treat sugar refusal not as a restriction, but as a conscious choice in favor of beauty and health."

Important: After three days of life without sugar, withdrawal may occur. You will feel anxious, you will face mood swings, you will want to get at least a little sweet by all means. So, the hero of the film "Sugar", after refusing the product, began to wake up in the middle of the night. However, if you last for a week, the unhealthy cravings will go away.

Photo: Sveta Mullari
Photo: Sveta Mullari

© Sveta Mullari

The keto diet

In the 1920s, the ketogenic diet was used to treat children with epilepsy. She became fashionable in the 2010s thanks to Hollywood stars. Actress Megan Fox, model Adriana Lima and the Kardashian sisters spoke about the positive experience. Kim said that after giving birth to her second child, she lost 27 kg on protein and fat, and Courtney wrote on her Internet resource Poosh: “My body has never looked better than two and a half years ago, when I was on keto for two months. menu".

“The keto diet consists of 60% healthy fats,” explains Maxim Novokovsky, nutritionist at the LITO Medical ETO aesthetic cosmetology clinic. - They can be obtained from fish, meat, vegetables, eggs and nuts. Another 20-30% of the menu should be proteins. Carbohydrates - sugar, cereals, pasta and fruits - are almost excluded. " Usually the body extracts energy from carbohydrates. But when they are lacking, it begins to break down fats. “This condition is called ketosis,” explains Novokovsky. "The result: weight is reduced, skin condition is improved, and the brain works faster."

Scientific studies also support the health benefits of the keto diet. The US National Institutes of Health has found that the keto diet helps the body burn fat more efficiently during exercise. For example, runners on a fat-protein diet lose 2.3 times more weight during training than those who prefer a low-calorie diet.

Important: “Among the downsides is the so-called ketosis flu,” warns Novokovsky. - The process of restructuring the body can be accompanied by weakness, fatigue and irritability. Also, if you eat this way for a long time, you can earn vitamin deficiencies, exacerbation of gastrointestinal diseases and an itchy keto rash (this allergic reaction to a protein diet usually resolves itself after one or several weeks). In addition, the diet has strict contraindications: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, serious violations of the liver and kidneys, pregnancy and old age."

Photo: Sveta Mullari
Photo: Sveta Mullari

© Sveta Mullari

FODMAP

The goal of the FODMAP diet is to improve gut health. According to her rules, fermented carbohydrates are excluded from the menu, which are poorly absorbed and provoke pain and bloating. “The state of the intestine directly depends on what foods we eat,” says Natalya Davydova, healthy lifestyle activist at tetyamotya. - Some heal him, others vice versa. It is better to give up refined sugar, because of which pathogenic microflora grows. And gluten takes a long time to digest and provokes inflammation. So are products based on cow's milk."

The FODMAP prohibited foods list includes wheat, rye, onions and garlic, as well as most legumes. But you can eat meat, poultry, fish, eggs, nuts, oats and quinoa. “To be slim, it is important to control hormones,” explains Natalya, “and the intestines are the place where substances that are involved in the production of hormones are extracted from food. So unhealthy gut is an important factor in hormonal imbalance and, therefore, excess weight."

If you want to try FODMAP, but you don't have time to think through the menu to the smallest detail, you can install the WELPS app. There, they not only counted calories and selected recipes for us, but also correlated nutritional characteristics with practicing different sports.

Important: The disadvantages of this diet have not yet been found. And even if you can't follow it constantly, you should try to withstand at least six weeks. This is exactly how much, according to scientists at Stanford University, is needed for intestinal health. Well, after that it will be possible to gradually include prohibited foods in the menu - in moderation.

Photo: Sveta Mullari
Photo: Sveta Mullari

© Sveta Mullari

Evolutionary diet

In 2017, the famous cardiologist and cardiac surgeon Stephen Gundry wrote the book "Plant Paradox", in which he spoke about special proteins - lectins. They are found in some vegetables, fruits, nuts and grains (gluten, by the way, is also lectin). The task of lectins is to protect plants from predators. That is why they work as a chemical attack and can cause inflammation and weight gain in the human body. Diet adherents, including designer Vika Gazinskaya, author of the food_as_a_delicious_medicine account, exclude tomatoes, cucumbers, pasta, potatoes, bread, sugar and most fruits from the menu.

The theory is relatively new, but there is already research to support its benefits. So, scientists from the Federal University of the State of Ceara in Brazil have proved: in large quantities, food with lectins can indeed cause gas formation and disrupt metabolism. And in the laboratories of the University of Iowa, they found out: the evolutionary diet helps to treat irritable bowel syndrome.

Model Valentina Zelyaeva also tried an evolutionary diet and shared the results: “I was so inspired by the book“Plant Paradox”that I made a lectin-free menu and even seriously thought of opening a cafe where they would only be fed such food. The meals I prepared for myself were very simple and delicious. But not varied enough, because I don't eat meat. As for the effect, I did not feel dramatic changes - I have no health problems. I just felt good and had a lot of energy."

Important: To master the Gundry diet, you will have to run around eco-shops. For the correct pasta, you need gluten-free pasta made from sorghum or flax, and for baking, you need almond flour. You can hardly find them in ordinary grocery stores.

Photo: Sveta Mullari
Photo: Sveta Mullari

© Sveta Mullari

Paleo diet

The first to speak about the paleo diet was gastroenterologist Walter Vogtlin in 1975 in his book The Stone Age Diet. He argues that it is best to eat like our ancestors in the Paleolithic era - meat, fish, vegetables and herbs. It is this kind of food that is natural for us. And with the development of agriculture, people began to eat less animal protein, lean on fast carbohydrates - and they developed gastrointestinal dysfunctions and weight problems. The author of The Paleo Diet, Lauren Cordain, a professor at Colorado State University, agrees. He shares the results of clinical trials that have shown that such a menu is the prevention of heart disease and high blood pressure. It also helps with weight control and acne.

Today, former vegans are on the paleo diet. Why this happens, explains yoga instructor Aniko, blogger anikoyoga. “After nine years of veganism, I began to have a serious deficiency of vitamins and minerals,” she shares with subscribers. - When you are vegan, you often make up for the lack of protein with rolls and chocolates. The result of this diet is a deficiency of magnesium, ferritin, iron and vitamin B12.” All this leads to AIT (autoimmune thyroiditis of the thyroid gland), in which thyroid function is impaired. “Those who had it noted the confusion of thoughts. They couldn't concentrate and felt that they were dull,”says Aniko. The paleo diet helps the body recover on its own (without artificial hormones). After 2.5 months of such nutrition, the blogger reported that the results of the new tests were excellent - and she was feeling great.

Important: Be sure to supplement the paleo diet with calcium and vitamin D.

What's next?

Most nutrition gurus themselves admit that lately we talk about healthy lifestyle so often that we are already tired of it. Tired of being banned. Tired of aggressively promoting chia and spirulina seeds. Tired of edifying posts on social media. “Before choosing another diet, ask yourself the question" why do I need this? " - advises Nastya Nova, founder of the FoodyFit service. - When we cannot answer ourselves to it, it is better to just eat in a balanced way: observe the balance of BJU, monitor the portion size and exclude all "chemistry". The latter really matters. Because of the chemicals that are processed, for example, grains and vegetables, gastrointestinal problems and allergies can begin. And then you will definitely need a diet that will cleanse the body - like a dishwasher cleans dirty dishes."

What is really important is to understand: we choose food not in order to suffer and suffer, but to make it a part of a way of life, the main principle of which is respect for ourselves. This is called intuitive eating, in which everyone finds what is closest to him and what works for him. And in order not to doubt the success of the chosen tactics, you should consult a dietitian.>

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